Beutenbergia cavernae (Groth et al. 1999) is the type species of the genus and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. B. cavernae HKI 0122T is a Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium isolated from a cave in Guangxi (China). B. cavernae grows best under aerobic conditions and shows a rod-coccus growth cycle. Its cell wall peptidoglycan contains the diagnostic L-lysine ← L-glutamate interpeptide bridge. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence from the poorly populated micrococcineal family Beutenbergiaceae, and this 4,669,183 bp long single replicon genome with its 4225 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
mesophilenon-pathogenicaerobic and microaerophilicrod-coccus growth cycleMK-8(H4)actinomyceteMicrococcineae
Beutenbergia cavernae strain HKI 0122T (DSM 12333 = ATCC BAA-8 = JCM 11478) is the type strain of the species, which represents the type species of the genus Beutenbergia, the type genus of the family Beutenbergiaceae . B. cavernae was described by Groth et al. 1999 as Gram-positive, non-motile and non-spore-forming .
The organism is of significant interest for its position in the tree of life within the small (2 type strains) family Beutenbergiaceae Zhi, et al, 2009 emend. Schumann et al. 2009 in the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae , which in addition to the genus Beutenbergia contains only the genus Salana [3,4] (Figure 1), also otherwise stated in a recent overview on the class Actinobacteria . Here we present a summary classification and a set of features for B. cavernae strain HKI 0122T (Table 1), together with the description of the complete genome sequencing and annotation.
Classification and general features of B. cavernae HKI 0122T based on the MIGS recommendations 
Evidence codes - IDA: Inferred from Direct Assay (first time in publication); TAS: Traceable Author Statement (i.e., a direct report exists in the literature); NAS: Non-traceable Author Statement (i.e., not directly observed for the living, isolated sample, but based on a generally accepted property for the species, or anecdotal evidence). These evidence codes are from the Gene Ontology project . If the evidence code is IDA the property was directly observed for a live isolate by one of the authors or an expert mentioned in the acknowledgements.
In addition to strain HKI 0122T, only one additional strain (HKI 0132) was isolated from the soil sample collected in the Reed Flute Cave near Guilin, Guangxi, China. HKI 0132 was also classified in the species B. cavernae . No closely related isolates and uncultivated clones with more than 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity are recorded in the microbiological literature, nor can any phylotype from environmental samples or genomic surveys be directly linked to B. cavernae.
B. cavernae cells vary in shape and colonies grown on rich medium vary in color from cream to bright yellow. In young cultures, cells are irregular rods arranged in palisades, clusters or in pairs at an angle to give V-formations (Figure 2) . Cells in stationary cultures are predominantly coccoid, occurring singly, in pairs, irregular clusters and short chains. During growth in complex media a rod-coccus growth cycle was observed . B. cavernae grow well under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions . The optimal growth temperature is 28°C .
B. cavernae is able to degrade casein, esculin, gelatin and potato starch. Acids are produced from L-arabinose, D-cellobiose, dextrin, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, glycerol, inulin, maltose, D-mannose, D-raffinose, L-rhamnose, D-ribose, salicin, sucrose, starch, trehalose and D-xylose. There is no acid production from D-glucitol, lactose and D-mannitol. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite, H2S is produced .
Classification and features
Figure 1. shows the phylogenetic neighborhood of B. cavernae strain HKI 0122T in a 16S rRNA based tree. Analysis of the two identical 16S rRNA gene sequences in the genome of strain HKI differed by four nucleotides from the previously published 16S rRNA sequence generated from DSM 12333 (Y18378). The slight differences between the genome data and the reported 16S rRNA gene sequence is most likely due to sequencing errors in the previously reported sequence data .
The peptidoglycan of B. cavernae HKI 0122T contains D- and L-alanine, D- and L-glutamic acid and L-lysine, with the latter widely distributed among actinobacteria . The strain possesses a type A4〈 peptidoglycan with a diagnostic LLys←L-Glu interpeptide bridge, type A11.54 according to Web Site. Glucose, mannose and galactose are the cell wall sugars . The fatty acid profile of strain B. cavernae HKI 0122T is dominated by 13-methyl tetradecanoic (iso-C15:0; 43.7%) and 12-methyl tetradecanoic (anteiso-C15:0; 34.6%) saturated, branched chain acids. Other predominantly saturated fatty acids play a minor role in the cellular fatty acid composition of the strain: iso-C14:0 (0.9%), C14:0 (1.9%); C15:0 (0.9%) isoC16:0 (2.3%), C16:0 (6.8%), isoC17:0 (3.1%), anteiso-C17:0 (4.9%), und C18:1 (0.9%) . Mycolic acids are not present . MK-8(H4) is the major menaquinone, complemented by minor amounts of MK-8(H2), MK-8 and MK-9(H4) . The combination of the LLys←L-Glu interpeptide bridge and MK-8(H4) as the dominating menaquinone is shared with the organisms from the neighboring genera Bogoriella and Georgenia. The polar lipids of strain HKI 0122T consist of phosphatidylinositol and diphosphatidylglycerol together with three yet unidentified phospholipids .
Genome sequencing and annotation
Genome project history
This organism was selected for sequencing on the basis of its phylogenetic position, and is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. The genome project is deposited in the Genomes OnLine Database  and the complete genome sequence in GenBank (CP001618). Sequencing, finishing and annotation were performed by the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). A summary of the project information is shown in Table 2.
Genome sequencing project information
Three genomic libraries: two Sanger libraries - 8 kb pMCL200 and fosmid pcc1Fos - andone 454 pyrosequence standard library
B. cavernae HKI 0122T, DSM 12333, was grown in DSMZ medium 736 (Rich Medium)  at 28°C. DNA was isolated from 0.5-1 g of cell paste using Qiagen Genomic 500 DNA Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) with a modification of the standard protocol for cell lysis in first freezing for 20 min. (-70°C), then heating 5 min. (98°C), and cooling 15 min to 37°C; adding 1.5 ml lysozyme (standard: 0.3 ml, only), 1.0 ml achromopeptidase, 0.12 ml lysostaphine, 0.12 ml mutanolysine, 1.5 ml proteinase K (standard: 0.5 ml, only). Over night incubation at 35°C.
Genome sequencing and assembly
The genome was sequenced using a combination of Sanger and 454 sequencing platforms. All general aspects of library construction and sequencing performed at the JGI can be found at the JGI website. 454 Pyrosequencing reads were assembled using the Newbler assembler version 1.1.02.15 (Roche). Large Newbler contigs were broken into 5,256 overlapping fragments of 1000 bp and entered into the assembly as pseudo-reads. The sequences were assigned quality scores based on Newbler consensus q-scores with modifications to account for overlap redundancy and to adjust inflated q-scores. A hybrid 454/Sanger assembly was made using the parallel phrap assembler (High Performance Software, LLC). Possible mis-assemblies were corrected with Dupfinisher or transposon bombing of bridging clones . Gaps between contigs were closed by editing in Consed, custom primer walking or PCR amplification. A total of 1627 Sanger finishing reads were produced to close gaps, to resolve repetitive regions, and to raise the quality of the finished sequence. The error rate of the completed genome sequence is less than 1 in 100,000. Together all sequence types provided 19.42x coverage of the genome.
Genes were identified using Prodigal  as part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory genome annotation pipeline, followed by a round of manual curation using the JGIGenePRIMP pipeline . The predicted CDSs were translated and used to search the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nonredundant database, UniProt, TIGRFam, Pfam, PRIAM, KEGG, COG, and InterPro databases. Additional gene prediction analysis and functional annotation was performed within the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG-ER) platform .
The genome is 4,669,183 bp long and comprises one main circular chromosome with a 73.1% GC content. (Table 3 and Figure 3). Of the 4278 genes predicted, 4225 were protein coding genes, and 53 RNAs. Twenty eight pseudogenes were also identified. The majority of the genes (74.3%) were assigned a putative function while the remaining ones were annotated as hypothetical proteins. The distribution of genes into COGs functional categories is presented in Table 4.
% of Total
Genome size (bp)
DNA Coding region (bp)
DNA G+C content (bp)
Number of replicons
Genes with function prediction
Genes in paralog clusters
Genes assigned to COGs
Genes assigned Pfam domains
Genes with signal peptides
Genes with transmembrane helices
Number of genes associated with the 21 general COG functional categories
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
RNA processing and modification
Replication, recombination and repair
Chromatin structure and dynamics
Cell cycle control, mitosis and meiosis
Signal transduction mechanisms
Cell wall/membrane biogenesis
Intracellular trafficking and secretion
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Lipid transport and metabolism
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
General function prediction only
We would like to gratefully acknowledge the help of Katja Steenblock for growing B. cavernae cultures and Susanne Schneider for DNA extraction and quality analysis (both at DSMZ). This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy's Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program, and by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC02-06NA25396, as well as German Research Foundation (DFG) INST 599/1-1.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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