Open Access

Complete genome sequence of Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens type strain (Yu37-1T)

  • Sam Pitluck
  • , Johannes Sikorski
  • , Ahmet Zeytun,
  • , Alla Lapidus
  • , Matt Nolan
  • , Susan Lucas
  • , Nancy Hammon
  • , Shweta Deshpande
  • , Jan-Fang Cheng
  • , Roxane Tapia,
  • , Cliff Han,
  • , Lynne Goodwin,
  • , Konstantinos Liolios
  • , Ioanna Pagani
  • , Natalia Ivanova
  • , Konstantinos Mavromatis
  • , Amrita Pati
  • , Amy Chen
  • , Krishna Palaniappan
  • , Loren Hauser,
  • , Yun-Juan Chang,
  • , Cynthia D. Jeffries,
  • , John C. Detter
  • , Evelyne Brambilla
  • , Oliver Duplex Ngatchou Djao
  • , Manfred Rohde
  • , Stefan Spring
  • , Markus Göker
  • , Tanja Woyke
  • , James Bristow
  • , Jonathan A. Eisen,
  • , Victor Markowitz
  • , Philip Hugenholtz,
  • , Nikos C. Kyrpides
  • , Hans-Peter Klenk
  • and Miriam Land,
Corresponding author

DOI: 10.4056/sigs.1523807

Received: 20 February 2011

Published: 04 March 2011


Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens Iino et al. 2008 is the type species of the genus Calditerrivibrio. The species is of interest because of its important role in the nitrate cycle as nitrate reducer and for its isolated phylogenetic position in the Tree of Life. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the third complete genome sequence of a member of the family Deferribacteraceae. The 2,216,552 bp long genome with its 2,128 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.


moderately thermophilicstrictly anaerobicmotileGram-negativechemoorganoheterotrophhot springDeferribacteraceaeGEBA


Strain Yu37-1T (= DSM 19672 = NBRC 101217) is the type strain of Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens which in turn is the type and sole species of the genus Calditerrivibrio [1]. The genus Calditerrivibrio is one out of six genera in the family Deferribacteraceae [2-6]. The genus name is derived from Latin adjective “caldus”, hot, “terra”, the earth, and “vibrio”, a vibrio, referring to a vibroid shaped bacterium in a hot terrestrial environment. The species epithet nitroreducens derives from the Greek name “nitron”, nitrite, nitrate, and “reducens”, drawing backwards, referring to its nitrate-reducing physiology [1]. Strain Yu37-1T was isolated from hot-spring water from Yumata, Nagano, Japan. No further cultivated strains belonging to the species C. nitroreducens have been described so far. Here we present a summary classification and a set of features for C. nitroreducens strain Yu37-1T, together with the description of the complete genomic sequencing and annotation.

Classification and features

A representative genomic 16S rRNA sequence of strain Yu37-1T was compared using BLAST under default settings (e.g., considering only only the high-scoring segment pairs (HSPs) from the best 250 hits) with the most recent release of the Greengenes database [7] and the relative frequencies of taxa and keywords (reduced to their stem [8]) were determined, weighted by BLAST scores. The most frequently occurring genera were Deferribacter (33.4%), Alteromonas (21.3%), Magnetococcus (9.4%), Shuttleworthia (7.5%) and Geovibrio (7.3%) (61 hits in total). Regarding the single hit to sequences from members of the species, the average identity within HSPs was 99.9%, whereas the average coverage by HSPs was 96.7%. Among all other species, the one yielding the highest score was Deferribacter desulfuricans, which corresponded to an identity of 88.1% and an HSP coverage of 86.0%. The highest-scoring environmental sequence was DQ424925 ('Enrichment and Thermophilic Mediator-Less Microbial Fuel Cell thermophilic microbial fuel cell enriched artificial wastewater clone 1B62') [9], which showed an identity of 99.7% and an HSP coverage of 98.2%. The most frequently occurring keywords within the labels of environmental samples were 'microbiota' (4.1%), 'microbi' (4.1%), 'intestin' (4.0%), 'mous' (3.8%) and 'compet, exploit, inflamm, salmonella, typhimurium' (3.7%) (183 hits in total). The most frequently occurring keywords within the labels of environmental samples which yielded hits of a higher score than the highest scoring species were 'microbi' (8.6%), 'thermophil' (6.7%), 'enrich' (5.7%), 'cell, fuel' (5.3%) and 'spring' (3.6%) (21 hits in total), which seem to fit to the features known for C. nitroreducens.

Figure 1 shows the phylogenetic neighborhood of C. nitroreducens Yu37-1T in a 16S rRNA based tree. The two copies of the 16S rRNA gene in the genome differ by one nucleotide from each other any by up to one nucleotide from the previously published 16S rRNA sequence (AB364234).

Figure 1

Phylogenetic tree highlighting the position of C. nitroreducens Yu37-1T relative to the other type strains within the family Deferribacteraceae. The tree was inferred from 1,470 aligned characters [10,11] of the 16S rRNA gene sequence under the maximum likelihood criterion [12] and rooted in accordance with the current taxonomy. The branches are scaled in terms of the expected number of substitutions per site. Numbers above branches are support values from 1,000 bootstrap replicates [13] if larger than 60%. Lineages with type strain genome sequencing projects registered in GOLD [14] are shown in blue, published genomes in bold [15].

Cells of the strain Yu37-1T are vibrio-shaped, 0.4-0.5 x 1.4-2.0 µm in size, occur singly or in pairs and stain Gram-negative [1] (Table 1 and Figure 2). No spore formation was detected for Yu37-1T [1]. No data is available on the generation time of strain Yu37-1T. Nitrate is the only electron acceptor utilized, with ammonium as the end product [1]. Elemental sulfur, sulfate, sulfite, nitrite, iron (III) oxide, manganese (IV) oxide, selenate, selenite, arsenate, arsenite, fumarate and oxygen are not used as alternative electron acceptors [1]. Acetate, pyruvate, lactate, fumarate, succinate, malate, yeast extract, peptone and Casamino acids are utilized as electron donors with nitrate as the electron acceptor; fermentative growth has not been observed [1]. Strain Yu37-1T is strictly anaerobic and catalase negative [1].

Table 1

Classification and general features of C. nitroreducens Yu37-1T according to the MIGS recommendations [16]




     Evidence code

     Current classification

     Domain Bacteria

     TAS [17]

     Phylum Deferribacteres

     TAS [18-20]

     Class Deferribacteres

     TAS [18,21]

     Order Deferribacterales

     TAS [18,22]

     Family Deferribacteraceae

     TAS [18,23]

     Genus Calditerrivibrio

     TAS [1]

     Species Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens

     TAS [1]

     Type strain Yu37-1

     TAS [1]

     Gram stain


     TAS [1]

     Cell shape


     TAS [1]


     motile, single polar flagellum

     TAS [1]



     TAS [1]

     Temperature range


     TAS [1]

     Optimum temperature


     TAS [1]


     < 0.5% NaCl

     TAS [1]


     Oxygen requirement

     strictly anaerobic

     TAS [1]

     Carbon source


     TAS [1]

     Energy source


     TAS [1]



     hot spring

     TAS [1]


     Biotic relationship

     not reported



     not reported

     Biosafety level


     TAS [24]


     hot spring water

     TAS [1]


     Geographic location

     Yumata, Nagano, Japan

     TAS [1]


     Sample collection time

     2008 or before

     TAS [1]


     Latitude     Longitude

     36.83     138.22

     TAS [1]



     0 m, surface waters

     TAS [1]



     not reported

Evidence codes - IDA: Inferred from Direct Assay (first time in publication); TAS: Traceable Author Statement (i.e., a direct report exists in the literature); NAS: Non-traceable Author Statement (i.e., not directly observed for the living, isolated sample, but based on a generally accepted property for the species, or anecdotal evidence). These evidence codes are from of the Gene Ontology project [25]. If the evidence code is IDA, then the property was directly observed by one of the authors or an expert mentioned in the acknowledgements.

Figure 2

Scanning electron micrograph of C. nitroreducens Yu37-1T


The predominant compounds in whole cell lipids of C. nitroreducens strain Yu37-1T are saturated branched-chain fatty acids: iso-C14:0 (26.3%), anteiso-C15:0 (24.1%), iso-C13:0 (7.7%), C18:0 (7.2%), C16:0 (6.2%), iso-C16:0 (5.7%) and anteiso-C13:0 (5.3%) [1]. Menaquinone MK-8 was identified as the major quinone [1].

Genome sequencing and annotation

Genome project history

This organism was selected for sequencing on the basis of its phylogenetic position [26], and is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project [27]. The genome project is deposited in the Genomes On Line Database [14] and the complete genome sequence is deposited in GenBank. Sequencing, finishing and annotation were performed by the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). A summary of the project information is shown in Table 2.

Table 2

Genome sequencing project information





     Finishing quality



     Libraries used

     Tree genomic libraries:     one 454 pyrosequence standard library,     one 454 PE library (7 kb insert size),     one Illumina library


     Sequencing platforms

     Illumina GAii, 454 GS FLX Titanium


     Sequencing coverage

     150.7 × Illumina; 68.8 × pyrosequence



     Newbler version 2.5-internal-10Apr08-1-threads,     Velvet, phrap


     Gene calling method

     Prodigal 1.4, GenePRIMP


     CP002347 (chromosome)     CP002348 (plasmid)

     Genbank Date of Release

     December 7, 2010

     GOLD ID


     NCBI project ID


     Database: IMG-GEBA



     Source material identifier

     DSM 19672

     Project relevance

     Tree of Life, GEBA

Growth conditions and DNA isolation

C. nitroreducens Yu37-1T, DSM 19672, was grown anaerobically in DSMZ medium 1112 (Calditerrivibrio medium) [28] at 55°C. DNA was isolated from 0.5-1 g of cell paste using Qiagen Genomic 500 DNA Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) following the standard protocol as recommended by the manufacturer, with modification st/DL for cell lysis as described in [27]. DNA is available through the DNA Bank Network [29].

Genome sequencing and assembly

The genome was sequenced using a combination of Illumina and 454 sequencing platforms. All general aspects of library construction and sequencing can be found at the JGI website [30]. Pyrosequencing reads were assembled using the Newbler assembler (Table 2). The initial Newbler assembly, consisting of seven contigs in four scaffolds, was converted into a phrap assembly [31] by making fake reads from the consensus to collect the read pairs in the 454 paired end library. Illumina GAii sequencing data (334.0 Mb) was assembled with Velvet [32] and the consensus sequences were shredded into 1.5 kb overlapped fake reads and assembled together with the 454 data. The 454 draft assembly was based on 152.9 Mb of 454 draft data and all of the 454 paired end data. Newbler parameters are -consed -a 50 -l 350 -g -m -ml 20. The Phred/Phrap/Consed software package [31] was used for sequence assembly and quality assessment in the subsequent finishing process. After the shotgun stage, reads were assembled with parallel phrap (High Performance Software, LLC). Possible mis-assemblies were corrected with gapResolution [30], Dupfinisher [33], or sequencing cloned bridging PCR fragments with subcloning or transposon bombing (Epicentre Biotechnologies, Madison, WI). Gaps between contigs were closed by editing in Consed, by PCR and by Bubble PCR primer walks (J.-F.Chang, unpublished). A total of 24 additional reactions were necessary to close gaps and to raise the quality of the finished sequence. Illumina reads were also used to correct potential base errors and increase consensus quality using a software Polisher developed at JGI [34]. The error rate of the completed genome sequence is less than 1 in 100,000. Together, the combination of the Illumina and 454 sequencing platforms provided 219.5 × coverage of the genome. The final assembly contained 438,623 pyrosequence and 43,957,307 Illumina reads.

Genome annotation

Genes were identified using Prodigal [35] as part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory genome annotation pipeline, followed by a round of manual curation using the JGI GenePRIMP pipeline [36]. The predicted CDSs were translated and used to search the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nonredundant database, UniProt, TIGRFam, Pfam, PRIAM, KEGG, COG, and InterPro databases. Additional gene prediction analysis and functional annotation was performed within the Integrated Microbial Genomes - Expert Review (IMG-ER) platform [37].

Genome properties

The genome consists of a 2,157,835 bp long chromosome with a 36% GC content and a 58,717 bp plasmid with 31% GC content (Table 3 and Figures 3a and 3b). Of the 2,278 genes predicted, 2,128 were protein-coding genes, and 50 RNAs; 27 pseudogenes were identified. The majority of the protein-coding genes (76.5%) were assigned with a putative function while the remaining ones were annotated as hypothetical proteins. The distribution of genes into COGs functional categories is presented in Table 4.

Table 3

Genome Statistics



% of Total

Genome size (bp)



DNA coding region (bp)



DNA G+C content (bp)



Number of replicons


Extrachromosomal elements


Total genes



RNA genes



rRNA operons


Protein-coding genes



Pseudo genes



Genes with function prediction



Genes in paralog clusters



Genes assigned to COGs



Genes assigned Pfam domains



Genes with signal peptides



Genes with transmembrane helices



CRISPR repeats


Figure 3a

Graphical circular map of the chromosome. From outside to the center: Genes on forward strand (color by COG categories), Genes on reverse strand (color by COG categories), RNA genes (tRNAs green, rRNAs red, other RNAs black), GC content, GC skew.

Figure 3b

Graphical circular map of the plasmid (not drown to scale with chromosome). From outside to the center: Genes on forward strand (color by COG categories), Genes on reverse strand (color by COG categories), RNA genes (tRNAs green, rRNAs red, other RNAs black), GC content, GC skew.

Table 4

Number of genes associated with the general COG functional categories








       Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis




       RNA processing and modification








       Replication, recombination and repair




       Chromatin structure and dynamics




       Cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning




       Nuclear structure




       Defense mechanisms




       Signal transduction mechanisms




       Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis




       Cell motility








       Extracellular structures




       Intracellular trafficking and secretion, and vesicular transport




       Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones




       Energy production and conversion




       Carbohydrate transport and metabolism




       Amino acid transport and metabolism




       Nucleotide transport and metabolism




       Coenzyme transport and metabolism




       Lipid transport and metabolism




       Inorganic ion transport and metabolism




       Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism




       General function prediction only




       Function unknown




       Not in COGs



We would like to gratefully acknowledge the help of Maren Schröder (DSMZ) for the growth of C. nitroreducens cultures. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program, and by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC02-06NA25396, UT-Battelle, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725, as well as German Research Foundation (DFG) INST 599/1-1.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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